OC4H glossary

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A tender amendment is a formal change to the tender, and generally involves the publication of a new tender notice/release.


A list of values in a data structure.


The process of evaluating bids received for a specific tender.


When  a contract is awarded to a supplier

award notice

Document or means of communicating the information related to the award.



Is an offer made by an individual or business for a product or service . Generally includes price and other technical aspects.


An interested party in a specific procurement process that has submitted a bid.

bidding documents

Documents sent by the bidder to bid for a contract.


A sum of money dedicated to a specific purpose.

building block

Common concepts that may occur at multiple points in an OCDS file (e.g. values, items, time periods) and for a common data structure is given.


The buyer is the entity whose budget will be used to purchase the goods, works or services that are the subject of the contracting process. The buyer may be different from the procuring entity who may be specified in the tender data.


Civil Society Organization (CSO)

A group of people operating in the community which is distinct from government and business.


A system to categorize goods, organizations, services, etc.


A list of possible values for a given field, each consisting of a machine readable code, and a human readable title and description. When a field uses a closed codelist, values MUST come from the codelist. When a field uses an open codelist, values SHOULD come from the codelist unless there is a good reason to use other values.


Secret or illegal cooperation, malpractice or conspiracy done in order to deceive others.

competitive dialogue

"A procurement method involving: (a) a public advance


How well a dataset meets the open contracting data standard. A full evaluation of conformance invovles checking both the syntax (validation) and semantics (alignment of term use) of a dataset.


A document that, once agreed and signed by all parties, legally binds them.

contracting body

A legal entity that can perform procurement for other agencies.

contracting data

Data relating to any aspect of the contracting process, as defined in OCDS, including planning, tender, award, contract and implementation.

Contracting Process



In relation to the Open Contracting Data Standard, we use core to refer to those components of the standard maintained by the Open Contracting Parntership, and which form the essential parts of OCDS.

core block

A building block that is part of the standard schema, as opposed to building blocks introduced by extensions.


Corruption is the abuse of entrusted power for private gain. 


One of the possible means of assessing a bid in a specific procurement process.


In relation to the Open Contracting Data Standard, the currency for each amount should always be specified using the uppercase 3-letter currency code from ISO4217.



In relation to the Open Contracting Data Standard, data is structured, machine readable, data.

data model

A standardized, structured representation of the properties, and relationships between properties, of a real entity. The OCDS schema defines a data model for a contracting process.

data publisher

The organization or individual responsible for the publication of data. In OCDS this entity may be distinct from the buyer or procuring entity for a contracting process.


A piece of written, printed or electronic matter which provides information about a contracting process.


electronic auction

an iterative process that involves the use of electronic means for the presentation by suppliers of either new prices, or new values for quantifiable non-price elements of the tender related to the evaluation criteria, or both, resulting in a ranking or re‑ranking of tenders

Electronic Government Procurement

Electronic Government Procurement (EGP) is the use of technology and the internet in particular, by the government in conducting their procurement for goods and services. 


Extensions are on-demand addons to OCDS which allow procurement systems to record data currently outside the OCDS pervue. They will not be used in this project.


Former Value

The data provided in a particular field in a previous OCDS release.

Freedom of Information Laws

Laws granting the public access to information possessed by government agencies



An index of geographical data from which a code identifying a location can be drawn.

globally unique identifier

An identifier which is guaranteed to be unique amongst all identifiers used for a given type of entity across all OCDS publishers.

Golden Triangle

In this context, the Golden Triangle refers to a theory of society, compromised of three groups: Government, Civil Society and Commercial platforms. Where these groups overlap provides the driver for change.


In relation to the Open Contracting Data Standard, a good is a tangible object that may be acquired by a procuring agency.


Health System

(i) all the activities whose primary purpose is to promote, restore and/or maintain health24; (ii) the people, institutions and resources, arranged together in accordance with established policies, to improve the health of the population they serve, while responding to people’s legitimate expectations and protecting them against the cost of ill-health through a variety of activities whose primary intent is to improve health. 25



Consistent identifiers are essential to help join up open contracting data.

  • The Open Contracting ID (ocid) is a globally unique identifier used to join up data on all stages of a contracting process;
  • Organization identifiers are important to know who is involved in each contract;
  • Release, tender, award and contract identifiers are important to help cross-reference information.


Unable to be changed


Implementation is once the work has been started and is the last stage of the contracting process

initiation type

The type of contracting process represented by an OCDS release. Currently only 'tender' is supported.


The ability for different systems and people to use the data generated



JSON: JavaScript Object Notation. JSON is a syntax for storing and exchanging data. JSON is text, written with JavaScript object notation.



In relation to the Open Contracting Data Standard, language refers to the default language of the data provided in an OCDS release.

limited tender

A tender that is only advertised to a limited number of potential bidders.



In relation to the Open Contracting Data Standard, "map" is the action of matching the members of two lists.


In relation to the Open Contracting Data Standard, Mapping is the activity of matching the members of two lists.

mapping template

A tool for matching the fields in a contracting system to the fields in OCDS.


An important date or event during in the contracting process.



Giving preferential treatment or using influence in the interest of family members or friends.


Contained within. Nested in this context is often used to describe that a subcategory sits inside another category

Non Governmental Organizastion

A non-profit organization whom operates independently of government. 



The Open Contracting Data Standard (OCDS) is an internationally recognised method for achieving Open Contracting. It sets out how to format data so that it is machine readable and consistently structured across different countries/organizations.


An Open Contracting ID (ocid) is a globally unique identifier for a contracting process. Every OCDS release has an ocid.

It can be used to join up information published at different times, and in different places.

Setting the ocid is usually a simple two step process:

  1. Identify the best internal identifier recorded against the contracting processes being disclosed;
  2. Register an ocid prefix to prepend to this internal identifier.

In some cases, you may need to consider changes to existing systems to ensure that different systems handling information about your contracting processes have a common internal identifier to draw upon

open contracting data standard (OCDS)

An open standard for publication of structured information on all stages of a contracting process.



In relation to the Open Contracting Data Standard, a package is a set of OCDS releases or records.


Each of the parties (organizations or other participants) referenced in a release must be included in the parties section.


The organization which receives the funds from a transaction.


Initial stage of the contracting process including budgeting 

politically exposed person

In financial regulation, "politically exposed person" (PEP) is a term describing someone who has been entrusted with a prominent public function. A PEP generally presents a higher risk for potential involvement in bribery and corruption by virtue of their position and the influence that they may hold.


The means by which a person or entity acquires goods, services and works.

Procurement Cycle

A cyclical process of key steps that need taken when procuring goods or services.

procurement method

One of various possible mechanisms that a procuring agency can use to procure goods, services or works, depending on international and local regulation, number of possible suppliers, nature of what is to be procured, type of agency, etc.

procuring agency

A party in a public contract that acquires goods, services or public works to a contractor.

procuring entity

The entity managing the procurement. This may be different from the buyer who pays for, or uses, the items being procured.


Ukrainian government E procurement system. 

public contract

An agreement signed by one or more procuring agencies and one of more contractors.

public contracting

Contracting conducted by public entities.

public procurement

Procurement conducted by public entities.

public-private partnership

"A contract (institutional relationship) between public and private entities. 

publication pattern

The frequency, format and mechanism via which OCDS data is provided to users.


The organization or individual responsible for the publication of data. In OCDS this entity may be distinct from the buyer or procuring entity for a contracting process.



In relation to the Open Contracting Data Standard rationale is an explanation of the reason for an amendment to a contract or contracting process.


In relation to the Open Contracting Data Standard, a record is an OCDS document which compiles all of the information available about a contracting process and provides the latest value of each field in the OCDS schema. A record is updated each time a contracting process changes and includes links to each release relating to the contracting process.

red flag

Alert that shows an abnormal situation.


In relation to the Open Contracting Data Standard relationship describes the way in which two contracting processes are related.


An immutable OCDS document which provides an update about a contracting process.

reusable tools

A software tool which either consumes or produces OCDS data.

review body

Agency in charge of assessing complaints and challenges to a procurement process, and determining an action based on these complaints and challenges.


In relation to the Open Contracting Data Standard, role refers to how an organization or other participant was involved in the contracting process.



Schema is code that enables a machine to read it more effectively

schema reference

More or less synonym of "documentation".


Intangible product that cannot be stored or transported.


One of the parties which signs a contract or document.


"A rule or set of rules or requirements which are widely agreed upon or imposed by government." (Wiktionary)

standing offer

A standing offer is an offer from a potential supplier to provide goods and/or services at pre-arranged prices, under set terms and conditions, when and if required. It is not a contract until the government issues a "call-up" against the standing offer.


In relation to the Open Contracting Data Standard, "status" is a code indicating the current situation of a part of the contracting process.


A sequence of characters


Contract by which the contractor of a public contract acquires goods, services or works to another person or legal entity, intended for the fulfillment of the objective of the public contract.


The person or legal entity that supplies goods, services or works in a subcontract.


A person or legal entity that supplies goods, services or works.

Sustainable Development Goals (SDG'S)

A collection of 17 global goals set by the United Nations General Assembly in 2015 for 2030



A code from the releaseTag codelist indicating which stage of the contracting process a release relates to.


Period where a services or goods required by government are published and suppliers can bid for

tender notice

Notice by which a procuring agency announces the beginning of the tender stage of a procurement process.


Person or legal entity that bids as an answer to a call for tender.


unique indentifier

An identifier which is unique amongst all identifiers used for a given set of entities.

use case

In OCDS, the term use case has been used to refer to categories of open contracting data use - such as the use of open contracting data to support 'value for money in procurement'. In software engineering, the term 'use case' is often used to describe in detail the specific set of steps or actions a user would take to achieve a particular goal. The OCDS usage is more general, and broader, than this.



In relation to the Open Contracting Data Standard, valid describes data that has passed a set of technical checks on the way it is structured, checking that it meets the requirements set out in the standard schema, and that it meets any additional validation rules that have been set.


Validation involves a technical check on the way data is structured, comparing data against a schema and additional validation rules.


The OCDS validator performs technical checks on the way data is structured, comparing data against a schema and additional validation rules.



Specific type of service intended for constructing or modifying infrastructure.

World Health Organization (WHO)

The United Nations agency focusing specifically on global health. 

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